Full text of “Vakyapadiya”. See other formats. STUDIES IN THE VAKYAPADlYA VOL I THE VAKYAPADlYA Critical Text of Cantos I and II [ with English. The Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari (5th c. CE), a treatise in three books (kāṇḍas) on the philosophy of language, belonging to the Pāṇinian school of grammar. Bhartrhari: Vakyapadiya Input by Yves Ramseier PLAIN TEXT VERSION. THIS GRETIL TEXT FILE IS FOR REFERENCE PURPOSES ONLY! COPYRIGHT AND .

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According to Sri Sankara, the One appearing as many vivarta is illusion Maya or a relative existence. The relationship between the two is described as that between the mirror and its reflection.

The philosophy of language that Bhartrhari presents covers both the factual and the intuitive levels of language. Vac is speech in general; Vac also symbolises cows that provide nourishment; Vac is also primal waters prior to creation; and, Vac is personified as the goddess revealing the word.

And, when it emerges as the spoken-word, it is the one that is heard and apprehended by the listener, in a flash of understanding Sphota. A true-speech Satya-vac honestly reflects the vision of the Rishi, the seer. Here, Sarasvathi is taken to be sabdatmika Vacdisplaying the various form of speech rupam as also the object denoted by speech vairupam: Nada in Tantra as also in the theories of Indian music was elevated to the mystical concept of a very high order as Nada Brahman.

Bhartrhari even believes that the nature of the self is nothing but identical with the nature of language — thought …. And, the second as: Thus, while Dhvani is variable; Sabdathe underlying cause of the Dhvaniis not. According to Bhartrhari, time is sequence-les s.

Bhartrhari takes up a profound discussion of Time in relation to the Absolute; not as a philosophical speculation, but in order to explain how the unitary Sabda Brahman manifests itself as diverse words and sentences that is called as language.

She is elegant, golden hued and embellished in gold Hiranya prakara. At this stage, which corresponds to Prakrta-dhvanithe word and the meaning are still distinct; and the word order is present. The object of this explanation is to show how the three apparently conflicting qualities can coexist without coming into conflict. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


For the rest; the three levels remain concealed and motionless. Yet, at the stage of Pashyantithere is a kind of hidden impulse or a desire iccha for an expression. At times, she is shown with three eyes.

As a result of the activity of growth and decay, appearance and disappearance of objects, Time, which is one, is seemingly demarcated as past, present and future. Bhartrhari was essentially a Vedantin who viewed the universe as the emanation of the non-dual Brahman. And the movement of the reflection might not necessarily be because of the movement of the object moon.

As that cognition crops up and takes a shape within, he grasps it. It is Time that pushes or drives objects into action; creating secondary relations of cause-effect, marking their instant of birth, span of existence and moment of decay or withdrawal.

It is said; the three forms of speech viz.

There are both views on the subject There is also the view that the aggregate of root and suffix convey the mean- ing of an object with its qualities like number, gender etc Vxkyapadiya fact, there is quite a body of notions on the topics of loot, suffix, loot-suffix relationship and the relationship between the meaning of word, roots and suffix In the same way too the prefix, how it modifies the meaning of the vakyapadjya, at what stage the modification takes place etc are also discussed m the text What are conjunctions?

Verify the characters on the left From: The technical vakyapdiya Sphota does not easily translate into English. Such quanta of sound-sequences words might create an impression as though they are independent; and, the meaning vakjapadiya to be conveyed by them Sphota comprises several parts. Bhartrhari illustrates these powers of Time by offering many examples.

Language and Literature Books. And, at one place, Vac is identified with Yajna itself unto whom offerings are made — Vac vai yajanam Gopatha Br. And again, in understanding Sphota as an external entity we have to understand it in the form of universal Jati and individual or specific Vyakti.

Bhartrhari places the word-principle at the very core Bija of existence and vkayapadiya the one that gives form to the latent or un-manifest human thoughts and feelings. And, it is the past and the future that has the veiling functions of keeping one apart from the present.


It is an emanation from out of silence, which is the Absolute. The Sarasvathi that is commonly depicted is an extraordinarily beautiful, graceful and benevolent deity of white complexion, wearing white garments, seated upon a white lotus sweta-padmasinaadorned with pearl ornaments ; vwkyapadiya holding in her four hands a book, rosarywater-pot and lotus.

Vakyapadiya | work by Bhartrihari |

The text explains the real word Sabda-Sphota as the intent of the speaker, and that which is unerringly grasped by the listener. Sarasvathi is depicted as a purifier pavaka nah sarasvathi — internal and external. That is to say; Advaita usually describes the error in terms of negation such as when it is said it is not a snake.

Thus, the transformation of a thought into spoken-words involves two kinds of efforts: Words are of two kinds — one, the cause of all words, and another, the kind vakyapaciya words used to convey a meaning.

Thus, for him, language is the manifestation of Brahman; and, it constitutes the world. According to Brhad-devata, there are six factors that determine the sense or the import of an expression.

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Brahma -kanda or Agama-samucchayaVakya-kanda and Pada-kanda. The former is intuition Prathibha the flash of insight that springs up; and, the latter is the effort that is vakyapadiyq, both internally and externally, to put it out.

Ila, Sarasvathi, Mahi tisro devir mayobhuvah; barhih sIdantvasridah. And his views are accepted and quoted by the later Vedanta Scholars of repute. Thus, the word Sarasvathi vakyapadiiya from the word Sarah stands for Vagvathi Sabdavathi and also for Udakavathi.

Sanskrit Manuscripts : Vākyapadīya

The Sphota Theory of Language: The former, the Prakrta Dhvaniis said to be the natural prakrti way of speaking where the sequences, durations and other qualities-as specified by the particular language system- are maintained, as expected. The flip side of such recognition was that the vakypadiya scholars of the rival schools whenever they criticized the philosophy of Grammar invariably attacked Bhartrhari and his work Vakyapadiya.

It asserts the identification of Sabda-brahman with the Brahman, the Absolute.

The transition came about because of the initiative of Bhartrhari. Continued in the next Part.